Unpacking Energy Transition for India: Expanding the Innovation Lens

India is one of the world’s largest energy consumers and emitters of greenhouse gases. As such, it plays a critical role in the global effort to transition to a clean energy future. The Indian government has set ambitious targets for renewable energy deployment and emissions reduction, but achieving these goals will require significant innovation and investment.

One of the key challenges to India’s energy transition is the lack of access to affordable and reliable energy for all. According to the World Bank, over 240 million people in India still lack access to electricity. This is a major obstacle to economic development and social progress.

Another challenge is the need to reduce India’s reliance on imported fossil fuels. India currently imports over 80% of its oil and gas, which makes it vulnerable to price shocks and supply disruptions. Transitioning to domestic renewable energy sources would help to reduce India’s energy import bill and improve its energy security.


Innovation will be essential to overcoming the challenges of India’s energy transition. New technologies are needed to make renewable energy more affordable and accessible, to develop more efficient energy storage systems, and to reduce emissions from the industrial and transportation sectors.

India has a strong track record of innovation in the energy sector. For example, Indian companies have developed world-leading technologies in solar energy and battery storage. However, more needs to be done to scale up these technologies and make them more affordable for all.

The Indian government is supporting innovation in the energy sector through a number of initiatives, including the National Mission on Energy Efficiency and the National Solar Mission. However, more needs to be done to attract private investment in energy innovation.


The transition to a clean energy future will require significant investment. According to the International Energy Agency, India needs to invest over $200 billion per year in renewable energy and energy efficiency in order to meet its climate goals.

The Indian government has committed to increasing investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency. However, more needs to be done to attract private investment in these sectors. One way to do this is to create a more favorable policy environment for renewable energy and energy efficiency investments.

Climate Resilience

Climate change is already having a significant impact on India. The country is experiencing more frequent and severe heat waves, droughts, and floods. These events are causing widespread damage to crops, infrastructure, and human health.

India needs to invest in climate resilience measures to protect its people and economy from the impacts of climate change. This includes investing in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and climate-smart agriculture. India’s energy transition is a complex and challenging undertaking. However, it is essential to address the country’s climate and energy challenges. By investing in innovation and climate resilience, India can create a cleaner, more prosperous, and more sustainable future for its people.

  • Climate resilience: India is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. Investing in climate resilience measures, such as renewable energy and energy efficiency, will help to protect India’s people and economy.
  • Climate tech: Climate tech is a broad term that refers to technologies that help to reduce emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change. India has a strong track record of innovation in climate tech, and there is significant potential for further growth in this sector.
  • Electric vehicles: Electric vehicles are a key part of the transition to a clean energy future. India is one of the largest markets for electric vehicles in the world, and the government is supporting the growth of this sector through a number of initiatives.
  • Emission-reduction: India has set ambitious targets for emissions reduction. Innovation will be essential to achieving these goals.
  • Just energy transition: A just energy transition is one that leaves no one behind. It is important to ensure that all communities benefit from the transition to a clean energy future.
  • Net zero: Net zero refers to the goal of achieving a balance between greenhouse gas emissions and removals. India has committed to achieving net zero by 2070.
  • Renewable energy: Renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, are essential to the transition to a clean energy future. India has made significant progress in developing its renewable energy sector, but more needs to be done to scale up these technologies.
  • Skewed funding: Energy innovation funding is currently skewed towards developed countries. More needs to be done to support energy innovation in developing countries, such as India.

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